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Introduction

Dramatic advances in the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility allows conception for couples previously considered untreatable. Advances in the sperm retrieval techniques as well as refinements in the microsurgical management of obstructive azoospermia and varicocele have made pregnancies possible that were unimaginable only a decade ago. Treatment by Dr. Gautam Banga who is trained in male infertility can induce sperm production in men and/or extract sperm from men who have zero sperm counts. In addition, urologists trained in male infertility can often provide treatments that upgrade the fertility of infertile men from nothing to candidate for IVF/ICSI, from only IVF/ICSI to intrauterine insemination, and often to enable naturally conceived pregnancy.

Male fertility is a complex process. To get your partner pregnant, the following must occur:

You must produce healthy sperm. Initially, this involves the growth and formation of the male reproductive organs during puberty. At least one of your testicles must be functioning correctly, and your body must produce testosterone and other hormones to trigger and maintain sperm production.

Sperm have to be carried into the semen. Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis.

There needs to be enough sperm in the semen. If the number of sperm in your semen (sperm count) is low, it decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner’s egg. A low sperm count is fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen or fewer than 39 million per ejaculate.

Sperm must be functional and able to move. If the movement (motility) or function of your sperm is abnormal, the sperm may not be able to reach or penetrate your partner’s egg.

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